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Reference Angle

Let θ  be a non-quadrantal angle in standard position.   Its reference angle is the acute angle α formed by the terminal side of θ and the horizontal axis.


Quadrant I :

  The given angle and the reference angle are the same angle.


            Math diagram


Quadrant II :

                               α=πθ (radians)

                               α=180°θ (degrees)

            Math diagram


Quadrant III :

                               α=θπ (radians)

                                α=θ180° (degrees)

            Math diagram


Quadrant IV :

                                  α=2πθ (radians)

                                  α=360°θ (degrees)

            Math diagram

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